Though education staff are not usually working at a computer all day, the introduction of planning, preparation and assessment (PPA) time and the electronic marking of examinations have resulted in increased use of computers.
There are health problems associated with working with computers, which include repetitive strain injury, eye strain, back pain and stress.
The regulations require employers to carry out a risk assessment of users' workstations, which should consider the entire workstation, including equipment and furniture, as well as the work environment, eg lighting, temperature and leg room. The tasks that are being performed at the work station should be considered as should any special needs of individual staff.
Display screen equipment (DSE) risk assessments should also consider those factors that may contribute to repetitive strain injuries such as:
- sitting in the same position for a long period
- awkward positioning of the wrist and hand in relation to the keyboard
- high workload for a prolonged period of time
- excessive use of the mouse.
Checklist for workstations
The DSE Regulations detail the minimum standards for workstations, which are summarised below.
The display screen
- display well-defined characters of adequate size and spacing
- have a stable image
- have easily adjustable brightness and contrast
- tilt and swivel easily to suit the user
- be free from glare and reflections
- use a separate base for the screen, or an adjustable table.
- be tiltable and separate from the screen to allow the user to adopt a comfortable working position
- have a space in front to provide support for the hands or arms of the user
- have a matt surface
- have clearly legible symbols on the keys.
The work surface
The work surface should:
- provide adequate space for the user
- have a low reflective surface
- be of adequate size to allow the screen, keyboard, etc to be flexibly arranged
- have a stable, adjustment document holder, which should be at the same level as the screen and at the same viewing distance.
The work chair
This should have a seat that is adjustable in height, with a seat back adjustable in height and tilt. A footrest should be available.
The workstation must do the following:
- provide sufficient space for the user or the operator to alter position comfortably
- lighting must be adequate with suitable contrast between the screen and background
- glare and reflections on the screen should be avoided
- windows should be fitted with adjustable coverings to alter the daylight level.
When a workstation is shared by more than one person, it should be assessed in respect of each person.
Schools and colleges should consult their safety reps on all matters concerning work with computers.
Training in using computers
Employers are obliged to provide information and training on the health and safety aspects of working with computers. This should cover:
- the importance of good posture, changing position and good keyboard technique
- how to avoid glare or bright reflections in the screen
- cleaning and adjusting the screen
- the importance of frequent short breaks
- using a mouse
- health risks
- who to report symptoms to or to contact for help
- information about the right to eyesight tests.
Under the regulations, users have a right to eye sight tests upon starting computer work and at regular intervals thereafter, at the employer's expense. Where tests show that the user requires special spectacles/lenses for computer work, the employer must pay for the cost of a basic pair.
The work of laptop users should be properly assessed. As some laptops can be heavy, the assessment ought to include the risk of manual handling (ie lifting and carrying).
Laptops should be used in proper workstations and not on one's lap, especially if large amounts of data need to be inputted. As prolonged use is likely to cause ergonomic problems, it is even more important for users to take regular breaks, position themselves correctly, flex their arms, etc.
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